Letter for the article Serum Levels of Galectin-9 are Increased in Cer

Center for Biomedical Research, Research Organization for Health, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Cibinong Science Center, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

Correspondence: Novaria Sari Dewi Panjaitan, Center for Biomedical Research, Research Organization for Health, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Genomic Building, Cibinong Science Center, Jl. Raya Bogor No. 490, Cibinong – Bogor Km. 46, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Email [email protected]

Dear editor

The study regarding galectin-9 as a biomarker for cervical cancer reported by Reyes-Vallejo et al, which was recently published, provides important information in this field.4 The concentration of galectin-9 from serum samples was measured accurately by the ELISA method, while the dissected tissue collected was stained for visualizing the expression of galectin-9 in the tissue. However, the concentration detection of galectin-8, galectin-1, and galectin-3, the other three important galectin family proteins was not included.1,2 It could have been possibly performed in this study to support the final conclusion taken.

This particular study aimed to understand the correlation of the expression level of galectin-9 in tumor tissue and its concentration in the serum. The result explained that the galectin-9 serum concentration is not suitable to be used as an early diagnosis marker, since there was no significant difference in galectin-9 serum concentration in premalignant and control groups. In addition, serum galectin-9 concentration was not associated with galectin-9 expression in the tissue obtained from cervical cancer patients. However, a recent study by Beyer et al. concluded that the presence of galectin-9 could be a prognosis marker for cervical cancer.5 Contradicting this, a previous study reported that the expression of galectin-9 in the tumor cell represented a beneficial response towards the given therapies,3 which slightly delivered a similar message to this particular study by Reyes-Vallejo et al.4

Hopefully, there will be a clear finding regarding the expression or the concentration of galectin-9 together with other galectin family proteins which may play significant roles in cancer development and prognosis. Therefore, a question worth asking is if there is any correlation to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection affecting the expression of galectin-9 or other galectin family proteins in the cells?6 This could be proposed for further studies in this field.


Full appreciation and acknowledgments should be provided to the authors for the study and to all support given during the study and article preparation.


The authors report no conflicts of interest in this communication.


1. Wang L, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Wu X. The role of galectins in cervical cancer biology and progression. Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018(3). doi:10.1155/2018/2175927

2. Hisrich BV, Young RB, Sansone AM, et al. Role of human galectins in inflammation and cancers associated with endometriosis. Biomolecules. 2020:1–12. doi:10.3390/biom10020230

3. Punt S, Thijssen VL, Vrolijk. J, Kroon CD, Gorter A. Galectin-1, −3 and −9 expression and clinical significance in squamous cervical cancer. PLoS One. 2015:1–13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129119

4. Reyes-Vallejo T, Conde-rodríguez I, Serna-villalobos J, et al. Serum levels of Galectin-9 are increased in cervical cancer patients and are higher in advanced clinical stages. Onco Targets Ther. 2022;15:1211–1220. doi:10.2147/OTT.S378933

5. Beyer S, Wehrmann M, Meister S, et al. Galectin-8 and -9 as prognostic factors for cervical cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2022;306(4):1211–1220. doi:10.1007/s00404-022-06449-9

6. Zhifang C, Dong D, Zhu Y, Pang N, Ding J. The role of Tim-3/Galectin-9 pathway in T-cell function and prognosis of patients with human papilloma virus-associated cervical carcinoma. FASEB J. 2021;35(3). doi:10.1096/fj.202000528RR

Leave a Comment